Analysis of Sub-Harmonics in Power Systems

Zbigniew Leonowicz
Faculty of Electrical Engineering
Wroclaw University of Technology
Wroclaw, Poland,
leonowicz@ieee.org

Abstract—With a wide range of power electronics-related applications in power systems, harmonic currents are increasing at an alarming rate which has greatly deteriorated the power quality in electrical power networks. Moreover, some of electronic controlled equipments used in power systems, such as power converters, produce sub-harmonics, a type of waveform distortion, which can severely degrade the power system performance. Therefore, they must be closely monitored. Moreover, Fast Fourier Transform cannot accurately analyze waveforms containing sub-harmonics because the synchronization of the sampling procedure to sub-harmonics is practically infeasible. The detection of sub-harmonics requires an approach different from that used for harmonics analysis. In most analysis methods the voltage waveform is expected to be a pure sinusoid with a given frequency and amplitude. Standard tools of harmonic analysis based on the Fourier transform assume that only harmonics are present in the investigated signal and the periodicity intervals are fixed, while periodicity intervals in the presence of inter-harmonics and sub-harmonics can be variable and very long. A novel approach to analysis of non-stationary signals, based on the “subspace” methods, is proposed. “Root-Music” harmonic retrieval method is an example of high- resolution eigenstructure-based method

Keywords:- Discrete Fourier Transform, dc arc furnaces
frequency measurement, harmonic analysis, power system,
subspace methods

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